Elizabeth Lyding Will

Information about the life, works and legacy of EL Will

EL Will 1924–2009

Elizabeth Lyding Will, professor emerita of classics at both the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and Amherst College, passed away in Amherst, Massachusetts, on 19 August 2009 at the age of 85. A noted specialist with Roman amphoras, Elizabeth Lyding received her B.A. from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and her M.A. and Ph.D. in classics from Bryn Mawr College.

We have compiled a full list of her body of work on this page. Most publishers granted permission for the PDF versions of her articles to be available through this site, thus all articles with the icon is available for download.

Amphora Typology

Elizabeth Lyding Will conducted extensive studies of the amphora assemblages from several significant archaeological sites including the Athenian Agora, Delos and Cosa, as well as the Roman shipwreck site, Grand Congloué.  The majority of her research involved the classification and publication of stamped amphora from archaeological sites throughout the Roman world.  However, she also developed an amphora typology that is widely used by scholars for dating and assigning provenience.

Dr. Will’s approach to amphora classification systems considered not only morphological progressions in amphora forms, but also fabric analysis of clay samples she collected from various kiln sites.  She published a preliminary catalog of her amphora typology in the 1987 Cosa publication. Her study material is currently being revised and prepared for publication by several scholars.  Please find below a draft of Dr. Will’s amphora typology based on her previously published work.  Please note that this is a work in progress, and we will add new material to this document as more of Dr. Will’s notes, slides, drawings, and other work products are classified.

Download EL Will’s Amphora Typology here.


2019. Elizabeth Lyding Will and Kathleen Warner Slane “Cosa: The Roman and Greek Amphoras.” Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

2005. “The Port of Cosa and Economic Romanization in Gaul and the Danube Valley.” In Terra Marique: Studies in Art History and Marine Archaeology in Honor of Anna Marguerite McCann, edited by John Pollini, 255-262. Oxford: Oxford Books.

2004. “Mediterranean Amphoras in India.” In Transport Amphorae and Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, edited by J. Eiring and J. Lund, 433-440. Acts of the International Colloquium Held at the Danish Institute at Athens, September 26-29, 2002. Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 5 (Athens 2002).

2002. “Charles Eliot Norton and the Archaeological Institute of America.” In Excavating our Past: Perspectives on the History of the Archaeological Institute of America, edited by S.H. Allen, 49-61. Boston: The Archaeological Institute of America.

2002. “My Blood of the Covenant.” Archaeology Odyssey Jan-Feb edition, accessed on Biblical Archaeology Online Archives.

2001. “Truth in Roman Labeling?” American Journal of Archaeology 105(2):263.

2001. “Defining the ‘Regna Vini’ of the Sestii.” In New Light from Ancient Cosa: Studies in Honor of Cleo Rickman Fitch, edited by N. Goldman, 35-47. New York: Peter Lang Publishers.

2000. “The Roman Amphora: Learning from Storage Jars.” Archaeology Odyssey Jan-Feb:26-35.

1999. “The Port of Cosa and Economic Romanization in Gaul and the Danube Valley.” American Journal of Archaeology 103:292.

1998. Abstract of “Charles Eliot Norton and the Founding of the Archaeological Institute of America,” American Journal of Archaeology 102: 365.

1993. Review of Roman Pottery by Kevin Green, NECNT 20(4):39-41.

1992. “Production, Distribution, and Disposal of Roman Amphoras.” In Ceramic Production and Distribution: An Integrated Approach, edited by George J. Bey III and Christopher A. Pool, 261-274. Boulder: Westview.

1992. “The Athenian Agora in India.” Newsletter of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 29(Spring): 13.

1992. “Sardinian Amphora Studies: Past and Future.” In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: a Footprint in the Sea, edited by R.H. Tykot and T.K. Andrews, 493-496. Studies in Sardinian Archaeology Presented to Miriam S. Balmuth. Monographs in Mediterranean Archaeology 3. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

1991. “The Mediterranean Shipping Amphoras from Arikamedu.” In Rome and India: The Ancient Sea Trade, edited by V. Begley and R. De Puma, 151-156. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

1991. Abstract of “Romans and the North: The Wine Trade.” American Journal of Archaeology 95:309-310.

1991. “From the Journal of an Amphora Sleuth.” Newsletter of the Archaeological Institute of America 6 (April):1ff

1990. Abstract of “Roman Amphoras at Split.” American Journal of Archaeology 94, 332.

1989. “Relazioni mutue tra le anfore romane: i ritrovamenti in Oriente, alla luce dei dati ottenuti nell’Occidente.” In Autori Vari, Amphores romaines et histoire economique: dix ans de recherche, by WHO, 297-309. Rome: ecole française de Rome

1989. Review of Exsecranda pernicies: delatori e fisco nell’etá di Costantino , by Tullio Spagnuolo Vigorita. Classical World 83:2, 114-115.

1989. “Roman Amphoras.” In Diocletian’s Palace Vol. 6, edited by in S. McNally and I.V. Schrunk, 58-113. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.

1987. “The Roman Amphoras from Manching: A Reappraisal.” Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblatter 52:21-36.

1987. “The Roman Shipping Amphoras from Arikamedu.” American Journal of Archaeology 91:293.

1987. “Shipping Amphoras as Economic Indicators.” Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum Acta XXV-XXVI:71-77.

1987. “The Roman Amphoras.” In The Roman Port and Fishery of Cosa: A Center of Ancient Trade , by A.M. McCann, J. Bourgeois, E.K. Gazda, J.P. Oleson, and E.L. Will, 171-219. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

1986. “Amphoras and Trade in Roman Sardinia.” In Studies in Sardinian Archaeology II: Sardinia in the Mediterranean , edited by M.S. Balmuth, 210-228. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

1986. Review of Late Roman Amphorae in the Western Mediterranean. A Typology and Economic Study: The Catalan Evidence, by S.J. Keay. American Journal of Archaeology 90:502-503.

1986. Review of Cross-Cultural Trade in World History , by Philip D. Curtin. Classical World 80:1, 53-54.

1986. Review of Il Monte Testaccio: Ambiente, Storia, Materiali, by Emilio Rodríguez Almeida. American Journal of Archaeology 90:128-129.

1986. Abstract of “Ports and Amphoras.” American Journal of Archaeology 90, 202.

1985. Co-authored with V.J. Bruno. “The Island of Pontia: A Nautical Survey.” Archaeology 38:1, 40-47.

1985. Review of Pottery in the Roman World: An Ethnoarchaeological Approach, by D.P.S. Peacock. Archaeology 38:6, 71, 73.

1985. Review of Ancient Athenian Building Methods (Excavations of the Athenian Agora Picture Books, no. 20), by John Mck. Camp II and William B. Dinsmoor, Jr. New England Classical Newsletter XII(4):25-26.

1984. “Ahnlichkeiten zwischen Stempeln auf Amphoren und auf arretinischen Gefassen.” Studien zur römischen Keramik. Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum Acta XXIII-XXIV:9-11.

1984. “The Spargi Wreck: A Reconsideration.” American Journal of Archaeology 88:264.

1984. Review of Trade in the Ancient Economy, by Peter Garnsey, Keith Hopkins, and C.R. Whittaker. Archaeology 37:2, 67.

1984. Review of Bronzeworkers in the Athenian Agora (Excavations of the Athenian Agora Picture Books, no. 20), by Carol Mattusch. New England Classical Newsletter 11:4, 36.

1984. Co-authored with A.M. McCann. Review of The Seaborne Commerce of Ancient Rome: Studies in Archaeology and History, edited by J.H. D’Arms and E.C. Kopff. American Journal of Archaeology 88:1, 92-95.

1983. “Exportation of Olive Oil from Baetica to the Eastern Mediterranean.” In Produccion y comercio del aceite en la antiguedad (II Congreso Internacional) , by J.M. Blazquez Martinez and J.R. Rodriguez, 391-440. Madrid: Universidad Complutense.

1983. Review of Women’s Life in Greece and Rome, by M.R. Lefkowitz and M.B Fant. Archaeology 36:4, 75.

1983. Review of Commerce and Social Standing in Ancient Rome, by J.H. D’Arms. Archaeology 36:3, 77.

1983. “The Ludi Saeculares and the Altar of Dis and Proserpina.” Classical Association of New England Seventy-eighth Annual Bulletin:20-21.

1983. “Diversification in Roman Industry: Some Ceramic Evidence.” American Journal of Archaeology 87:269.

1983. “A Survey of the Roman Amphoras Found in Sardinia.” Year Book of the American Philosophical Society 1983 edition:273-274.

1982. Abstract: “The Earliest Roman Amphoras.” American Journal of Archaeology 86:290-291.

1982. “Greco-Italic Amphoras.” Hesperia 51:338-356.

1982. Review of Greek and Roman Slavery, by Thomas Wiedemann. Archaeology 35:1, 68.

1982. “Ambiguity in Horace, Odes 1.4.” Classical Philology 77:3, 240-245.

1980. Co-authored with V.J. Bruno. “Exploring the Gulf of Talamone.” Archaeology 33:4, 34-43.

1979. “Women in Pompeii.” Archaeology 32:5, 34-43.

1979. “The Sestius Amphoras: A Reappraisal.” Journal of Field Archaeology 6(3):339-350.

1977. Co-authored with A.M. McCann and J. Bourgeois. “Underwater Excavations at the Etruscan Port of Populonia.” Journal of Field Archaeology 4(3), 293-296.

1977. “The Ancient Commercial Amphora.” Archaeology 30:264-278.

1977. Abstract of “Women in Roman Business and Industry.” New England Classical Newsletter 4:4, 10.

1975. “Roman Amphoras.” New England Classical Newsletter 2:34-36.

1970. “Les timbres amphoriques latins.” In L’ilot de la Maison des Comediens. Exploration archeologique de Delos , Vol. 27, by P. Bruneau, C. Vatin, U.B. de Meneses, G. Donnay, E. Levy, A. Bovon, G. Siebert, V.R. Grace, M. Savvatianou-Petropoulakou, E.L. Will, and T. Hackens, 383-386. Paris: Editions E. de Boccard.

1962. “Latin-stamped Amphoras in the Eastern Mediterranean Area.” Year Book of the American Philosophical Society . 1962 edition:647-650.

1956. “Les amphores de Sestius.” Revue archeologique de l’Est et du Centre-Est 7:224-244.

Reviews of E.L. Will’s Published Works

Thompson, D. L 1989. Review of The Roman Port and Fishery of Cosa: A Center of Ancient Trade , by A.M. McCann, J. Bourgeois, E.K. Gazda, J.P. Olesen, and E.L. Will. Classical World 82:4, 311.

Fulford, M. 1988. Review of The Roman Port and Fishery of Cosa: A Center of Ancient Trade, by A.M. McCann, J. Bourgeois, E.K. Gazda, J.P. Olesen, and E.L. Will. Isis 79:1, 162-163.